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Linux源代码编译安装详解

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1. 编译源代码步骤

Linux源代码编译安装详解


configure、Makefile.in一般是项目管理器自动生成的,这依赖于两个开发工具

  • autoconf:生成configure脚本文件
    • autoconf需要结合一个配置文件来和其它命令生成configure脚本;这个配置文件告诉autoconf当前代码有哪些特性、指定哪些安装路径等,而后才能生成configure脚本;
  • automake:生成Makefile.in模板文件;
Note:在安装之前查看INSTALL和README文件查看安装方法,因为不同程序包安装步骤不一样,有的程序包不需要configure,直接make后执行make install;而有的程序包不需要执行make install,只有一个二进制文件直接复制即可完成;

安装开发组件
想要进行编译,提前安装开发组件

CentOS 6:Development Tools、Server Platform Development  CentOS 7:Development Tools、Development and Creative Workstation

(1) ./configure(也可能是config文件)
–help:获取支持使用的选项;

在执行make命令之前,用户指定程序包的编译参数、启用特性、安装路径等等;  configure脚本会收集当前系统上的开发环境中所依赖各组件的版本、特性等,并检查所依赖的环境是否能满足,如果检查到所依赖的程序包不存在立即报错,无法执行下一步。最后会根据用户指定信息和Makefile.in文件生成一个makefile文件;    ##通用的几个选项  --prefix=          :指定安装的路径  --sysconfdir=      :指定配置文件目录  --enable-feature   :启用某个特性  --disable-fecture  :禁用特性  --with-function    :启用某功能  --without-function :禁用某功能

(2) make

每个源代码都有专用的makefile,在make时依据这个配置文件,调用指定的预处理器做处理、调用指定的编译器做处理、编译文件的顺序操作等;

(3) make install

其实是一些脚本,实现把构建出的应用程序,分别分配到用户指定的目录中;如创建出的二进制文件放到指定的二进制目录、库文件放到指定的库目录等等,使用install拷贝命令也能实现;

2. 安装后的配置

(1) 将二进制程序目录添加至PATH文件变量中,否则只能使用绝对路径才能运行程序

编辑文件/etc/profile.d/NAME.sh    export PATH=/PATH/TO/BIN:$PATH

(2) 导出库文件路径

编辑/etc/ld.so.conf.d/NAME.conf,添加新的库文件所在的目录至此文件中;      例如:/usr/local/apache2/lib       ldconfig -v:重新加载库文件路径,并查看;  ldconfig -p:查看已加载所有库文件路径;

(3) 导出头文件

/usr/include/目录下,创建软链接;   ln -s  target_dir  soft_link        ##可以导出一个目录为所有文件链接,也可以为每一个头文件导出一个链接,然后把创建的链接输出到/usr/include/目录下,或者直接复制头文件至/usr/include/目录;

(4) 导出man手册

Centos7是在/etc/man_db.conf的40到50行之间,添加一个MANPATH参数(Centos6可能是/etc/man.config);      MANPATH_MAP     /usr/local/apache2/bin  /usr/local/apache2/man  

3. 编译安装实验

3.1. Centos7编译安装apache 2.2.27

系统版本软件版本

[root@GNOME-C7 ~]# cat /etc/RedHat-release  CentOS Linux release 7.4.1708 (Core)  [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# uname -r  3.10.0-693.el7.x86_64  ------------------------------------------------------------------  apr-1.6.3  apr-util-1.6.1  httpd-2.2.27

提前安装开发环境
[root@GNOME-C7 ~]# yum groupinstall -y "Development tools" "Development and Creative Workstation"

3.1.1. 安装apr-1.6.3

[root@GNOME-C7 ~]# cd apr-1.6.3/  root@GNOME-C7 apr-1.6.3]# ./configure -prefix=/usr/local/apr-1.6.3  [root@GNOME-C7 apr-1.6.3]# make  [root@GNOME-C7 apr-1.6.3]# make install

3.1.2. 安装apr-util-1.6.1

[root@GNOME-C7 apr-1.6.3]# cd ../apr-util-1.6.1/  [root@GNOME-C7 apr-util-1.6.1]# ./configure -prefix=/usr/local/apr-unil-1.6.1 --with-apr=/usr/local/apr-1.6.3    [root@GNOME-C7 apr-util-1.6.1]# make  遇到报错:  xml/apr_xml.c:35:19: fatal error: expat.h: No such file or directory  #include <expat.h>                     ^  compilation terminated.  make[1]: *** [xml/apr_xml.lo] Error 1  make[1]: Leaving directory `/root/apr-util-1.6.1'  make: *** [all-recursive] Error 1  解决方法yum install -y expat-devel    [root@GNOME-C7 apr-util-1.6.1]# make install

3.1.3. 安装httpd-2.2.27

编译安装

[root@GNOME-C7 apr-util-1.6.1]# cd ../httpd-2.2.27/  [root@GNOME-C7 httpd-2.2.27]# ./configure --sysconfdir=/etc/httpd --prefix=/usr/local/apache2  --with-apr=/usr/local/apr-1.6.3 --with-apr-util=/usr/local/apr-unil-1.6.3 --with-mpm=prefork --with-included-apr --enable-mods-shared=most --enable-ssl --enable-suexec --enable-so  遇到报错:configure: error: ...No recognized SSL/TLS toolkit detected  解决方法:yum install -y openssl-devel    [root@GNOME-C7 httpd-2.2.27]# make  [root@GNOME-C7 httpd-2.2.27]# make install    编译第二次,从而得到httpd.worker        ##这种方法不确定是否可以  [root@GNOME-C7 httpd-2.2.27]# cd ../  [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# rm -rf httpd-2.2.27/  [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# tar -xf httpd-2.2.27.tar.bz2  [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# cd ./httpd-2.2.27/  [root@GNOME-C7 httpd-2.2.27]# ./configure --sysconfdir=/etc/httpd --prefix=/usr/local/apache2  --with-apr=/usr/local/apr-1.6.3 --with-apr-util=/usr/local/apr-unil-1.6.3 --with-mpm=worker --with-included-apr --enable-mods-shared=most --enable-ssl --enable-suexec --enable-so  [root@GNOME-C7 httpd-2.2.27]# make       ##不用执行make install否则就会覆盖当前apache的文件了  [root@GNOME-C7 httpd-2.2.27]# cp ./httpd /usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd.worker      本次使用的编译参数  --prefix=/PATH:指明安装路径;  --sysconfdir=/PATH:指明配置文件路径;不指明,默认在安装路径下;  --enable-so:表示启用DSO动态模块加载机制;  --enable-ssl:启用支持ssl功能;  --enable-mods-shared=most:表示动态的编译进来大多数的模块;如果使用--enable-mods-shared=all,则指动态的编译所有的模块。  --with-apr=/PATH:指明apr程序包的路径;不使用=指明路径会在默认路径查找;  --with-apr-util=/PATH:指明apr-util程序包的路径;  --with-mpm=prefork:指明默认使用的MPM模块;      说明:  静态编译:将module直接在安装的过程中放到apache中,当apache使用module的时候,就可以直接使用了。  动态编译:将module引入到apache之中,在使用的时候才会真正的去加载(通过LoadModule命令)  --with.....:表示依赖的包,不指明路径,编译安装时会到默认路径下找;  --without.....:不依赖的包;  --enable.....:启用特性;  --disable.....:禁用特性;      可能用到的其他参数  [root@Centos7 httpd-2.2.29]# ./configure --help        ##查看有哪些支持的选项  部分内容如下:      Fine tuning of the installation directories:        --bindir=DIR            user executables [EPREFIX/bin]:所有用户执行的命令放在哪个目录;        --sbindir=DIR           system admin executables [EPREFIX/sbin]:管理员执行的命令放在哪个目录;        --libexecdir=DIR        program executables [EPREFIX/libexec]:库执行的程序放在哪个目录;        --sysconfdir=DIR        read-only single-machine data [PREFIX/etc]:配置文件放在哪个目录;        --sharedstatedir=DIR    modifiable architecture-independent data [PREFIX/com]:共享数据目录放在哪个目录;        --localstatedir=DIR     modifiable single-machine data [PREFIX/var]:本地状态目录放在哪个目录;        --libdir=DIR            object code libraries [EPREFIX/lib]:库文件放在哪个目录;        --includedir=DIR        C header files [PREFIX/include]:头文件放在哪个目录;

安装后的产生的目录

]# ll /usr/local/apache2/  显内容示:  drwxr-xr-x  2 root root  4096 Apr 14 08:51 bin 程序路径  drwxr-xr-x  2 root root  4096 Apr 14 08:51 build 编译安装的相关文件  drwxr-xr-x  2 root root  4096 Apr 14 08:51 cgi-bin cgi格式的程序文件  drwxr-xr-x  4 root root  4096 Apr 14 08:51 conf 配置文件  drwxr-xr-x  3 root root  4096 Apr 14 08:51 error 错误页面  drwxr-xr-x  2 root root  4096 Apr 14 08:30 htdocs 网页文件存放路径  drwxr-xr-x  3 root root  4096 Apr 14 08:51 icons 图标  drwxr-xr-x  2 root root  4096 Apr 14 08:51 include 头文件,任何支持二次开发的程序都提供头文件  drwxr-xr-x  2 root root  4096 Apr 14 08:53 logs 日志  drwxr-xr-x  4 root root  4096 Apr 14 08:51 man 帮助手册  drwxr-xr-x 14 root root 12288 Jul 16  2014 manual 官方文档  drwxr-xr-x  2 root root  4096 Apr 14 08:51 modules 模块

3.1.4. 导出二进制程序目录至PATH变量

[root@centos7 ~]# export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/apache2/bin  [root@centos7 ~]# vim /etc/profile.d/apache2.sh  export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/apache2/bin

3.1.5. 导出man手册

[root@centos7 ~]# vim /etc/man_db.conf  MANPATH_MAP /usr/local/apache2/bin    /usr/local/apache2/man  [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# manpath  /usr/local/share/man:/usr/share/man/overrides:/usr/share/man:/usr/local/apache2/man

3.1.6. 导出头文件

[root@GNOME-C7 ~]# ln -sv /usr/local/apache2/include /usr/include/httpd  ‘/usr/include/httpd’ -> ‘/usr/local/apache2/include’

3.1.7. 导出库文件

[root@GNOME-C7 ~]# vim /etc/ld.so.conf.d/httpd.conf  /usr/local/apache2/lib  [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# ldconfig -v  [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# ldconfig -p | grep apache      libaprutil-1.so.0 (libc6,x86-64) => /usr/local/apache2/lib/libaprutil-1.so.0      libaprutil-1.so (libc6,x86-64) => /usr/local/apache2/lib/libaprutil-1.so      libapr-1.so.0 (libc6,x86-64) => /usr/local/apache2/lib/libapr-1.so.0      libapr-1.so (libc6,x86-64) => /usr/local/apache2/lib/libapr-1.so

3.1.8. 创建服务管理脚本

两个脚本是从其他机器上复制的,然后改了一下文件与目录的路径

[root@GNOME-C7 ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/httpd  # Configuration file for the httpd service.    #  # The default processing model (MPM) is the process-based  # 'prefork' model.  A thread-based model, 'worker', is also  # available, but does not work with some modules (such as PHP).  # The service must be stopped before changing this variable.  #  HTTPD=/usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd.worker        ##表示启动的httpd服务mpm为worker    #  # To pass additional options (for instance, -D definitions) to the  # httpd binary at startup, set OPTIONS here.  #  #OPTIONS=    #  # By default, the httpd process is started in the C locale; to  # change the locale in which the server runs, the HTTPD_LANG  # variable can be set.  #  #HTTPD_LANG=C    #  # By default, the httpd process will create the file  # /var/run/httpd/httpd.pid in which it records its process  # identification number when it starts.  If an alternate location is  # specified in httpd.conf (via the PidFile directive), the new  # location needs to be reported in the PIDFILE.  #  #PIDFILE=/var/run/httpd/httpd.pid        [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# cat /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd  #!/bin/bash  #  # httpd        Startup script for the Apache HTTP Server  #  # chkconfig: - 85 15  # description: The Apache HTTP Server is an efficient and extensible    #           server implementing the current HTTP standards.  # processname: httpd  # config: /etc/httpd/httpd.conf  # config: /etc/sysconfig/httpd  # pidfile: /usr/local/apache2/logs/httpd.pid  #  ### BEGIN INIT INFO  # Provides: httpd  # Required-Start: $local_fs $remote_fs $network $named  # Required-Stop: $local_fs $remote_fs $network  # Should-Start: distcache  # Short-Description: start and stop Apache HTTP Server  # Description: The Apache HTTP Server is an extensible server  #  implementing the current HTTP standards.  ### END INIT INFO    # Source function library.  . /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions    if [ -f /etc/sysconfig/httpd ]; then          . /etc/sysconfig/httpd  fi    # Start httpd in the C locale by default.  HTTPD_LANG=${HTTPD_LANG-"C"}    # This will prevent initlog from swallowing up a pass-phrase prompt if  # mod_ssl needs a pass-phrase from the user.  INITLOG_ARGS=""    # Set HTTPD=/usr/sbin/httpd.worker in /etc/sysconfig/httpd to use a server  # with the thread-based "worker" MPM; BE WARNED that some modules may not  # work correctly with a thread-based MPM; notably PHP will refuse to start.    # Path to the apachectl script, server binary, and short-form for messages.  apachectl=/usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl  httpd=${HTTPD-/usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd}  prog=httpd  pidfile=${PIDFILE-/usr/local/apache2/logs/httpd.pid}  lockfile=${LOCKFILE-/var/lock/subsys/httpd}  RETVAL=0  STOP_TIMEOUT=${STOP_TIMEOUT-10}    # The semantics of these two functions differ from the way apachectl does  # things -- attempting to start while running is a failure, and shutdown  # when not running is also a failure.  So we just do it the way init scripts  # are expected to behave here.  start() {          echo -n $"Starting $prog: "          LANG=$HTTPD_LANG daemon --pidfile=${pidfile} $httpd $OPTIONS          RETVAL=$?          echo          [ $RETVAL = 0 ] && touch ${lockfile}          return $RETVAL  }    # When stopping httpd, a delay (of default 10 second) is required  # before SIGKILLing the httpd parent; this gives enough time for the  # httpd parent to SIGKILL any errant children.  stop() {      status -p ${pidfile} $httpd > /dev/null      if [[ $? = 0 ]]; then          echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "          killproc -p ${pidfile} -d ${STOP_TIMEOUT} $httpd      else          echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "          success      fi      RETVAL=$?      echo      [ $RETVAL = 0 ] && rm -f ${lockfile} ${pidfile}  }    reload() {      echo -n $"Reloading $prog: "      if ! LANG=$HTTPD_LANG $httpd $OPTIONS -t >&/dev/null; then          RETVAL=6          echo $"not reloading due to configuration syntax error"          failure $"not reloading $httpd due to configuration syntax error"      else          # Force LSB behaviour from killproc          LSB=1 killproc -p ${pidfile} $httpd -HUP          RETVAL=$?          if [ $RETVAL -eq 7 ]; then              failure $"httpd shutdown"          fi      fi      echo  }    # See how we were called.  case "$1" in    start)      start      ;;    stop)      stop      ;;    status)          status -p ${pidfile} $httpd      RETVAL=$?      ;;    restart)      stop      start      ;;    condrestart|try-restart)      if status -p ${pidfile} $httpd >&/dev/null; then          stop          start      fi      ;;    force-reload|reload)          reload      ;;    graceful|help|configtest|fullstatus)      $apachectl $@      RETVAL=$?      ;;    *)      echo $"Usage: $prog {start|stop|restart|condrestart|try-restart|force-reload|reload|status|fullstatus|graceful|help|configtest}"      RETVAL=2  esac    exit $RETVAL

3.1.9. 使用chkconfig管理

[root@GNOME-C7 ~]# chmod 755 /etc/init.d/httpd   [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# chkconfig --add httpd  [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# chkconfig --level 3 httpd on  [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# chkconfig --list | grep httpd  httpd              0:off    1:off    2:off    3:on    4:off    5:off    6:off

3.1.10. 启动服务

[root@GNOME-C7 ~]# service httpd start  Starting httpd (via systemctl):                            [  OK  ]  [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# ss -ant | grep 80  LISTEN     0      128          *:80                       *:*    [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# ps aux | grep http[d]        ##现在运行httpd的用户是daemon,可以在配置文件中更改  root     114229  0.0  0.0  97508  2536 ?        Ss   18:34   0:00 /usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd  daemon   114231  0.0  0.0 386420  4416 ?        Sl   18:34   0:00 /usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd  daemon   114232  0.0  0.0 386420  4416 ?        Sl   18:34   0:00 /usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd  daemon   114233  0.0  0.0 386420  4420 ?        Sl   18:34   0:00 /usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd  daemon   114234  0.0  0.0 386420  4420 ?        Sl   18:34   0:00 /usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd

3.1.11. 访问测试

Linux源代码编译安装详解

3.2. Centos7编译安装apache 2.4.6

系统版本与软件版本

[root@GNOME-C7 ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release  CentOS Linux release 7.4.1708 (Core)  [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# uname -r  3.10.0-693.el7.x86_64  ------------------------------------------------------------------  apr-1.6.3  apr-util-1.6.1  httpd-2.4.6

提前安装开发环境
[root@GNOME-C7 ~]# yum groupinstall -y "Development tools" "Development and Creative Workstation"

3.2.1. 安装apr-1.6.3

[root@GNOME-C7 ~]# cd apr-1.6.3/  root@GNOME-C7 apr-1.6.3]# ./configure -prefix=/usr/local/apr-1.6.3  [root@GNOME-C7 apr-1.6.3]# make  [root@GNOME-C7 apr-1.6.3]# make install

3.2.2. 安装apr-util-1.6.1

[root@GNOME-C7 apr-1.6.3]# cd ../apr-util-1.6.1/  [root@GNOME-C7 apr-util-1.6.1]# ./configure -prefix=/usr/local/apr-unil-1.6.1 --with-apr=/usr/local/apr-1.6.3    [root@GNOME-C7 apr-util-1.6.1]# make  遇到报错:  xml/apr_xml.c:35:19: fatal error: expat.h: No such file or directory  #include <expat.h>                     ^  compilation terminated.  make[1]: *** [xml/apr_xml.lo] Error 1  make[1]: Leaving directory `/root/apr-util-1.6.1'  make: *** [all-recursive] Error 1  解决方法:yum install -y expat-devel    [root@GNOME-C7 apr-util-1.6.1]# make install

3.2.3. 安装httpd-2.4.6

[root@GNOME-C7 apr-util-1.6.1]# cd ../httpd-2.4.6/  [root@GNOME-C7 apr-util-1.6.1]# yum install -y openssl-devel    ##如果想要直接编译成功ssl模块,需要提前安装该openssl-devel,否则编译过程中虽然不报错(因为不是是动态编译),但是编译结束后发现没有ssl模块;  [root@GNOME-C7 httpd-2.4.6]# ./configure  --prefix=/usr/local/apache2 --with-apr=/usr/local/apr-1.6.3 --with-apr-util=/usr/local/apr-unil-1.6.1 --with-included-apr --sysconfdir=/etc/httpd --enable-so --enable-mpms-shared=all  --enable-mods-shared=all --with-mpm=prefork  遇到报错:configure: error: Bundled APR requested but not found at ./srclib/. Download and unpack the corresponding apr and apr-util packages to ./srclib/.  解决方法:cp -r ../apr-1.6.3 ./srclib/apr ; cp -r ../apr-util-1.6.1 ./srclib/apr-util  遇到报错:configure: error: pcre-config for libpcre not found. PCRE is required and available from http://pcre.org/  解决方法:yum -y install pcre-devel    [root@GNOME-C7 httpd-2.4.6]# make  [root@GNOME-C7 httpd-2.4.6]# make install    本次使用的编译参数  --enable-so:表示启用DSO动态模块加载机制;  --enable-mpms-shared=安装所有支持的MPM模块  --enable-mods-shared=all:动态的编译所有的模块  --with-mpm=prefork:指定默认MPM

3.2.4. 导出二进制程序目录至PATH变量

[root@centos7 ~]# export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/apache2/bin  [root@centos7 ~]# vim /etc/profile.d/apache2.sh  export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/apache2/bin

3.2.5. 导出man手册

[root@centos7 ~]# vim /etc/man_db.conf  MANPATH_MAP /usr/local/apache2/bin    /usr/local/apache2/man  [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# manpath  /usr/local/share/man:/usr/share/man/overrides:/usr/share/man:/usr/local/apache2/man

3.2.6. 导出头文件

[root@GNOME-C7 ~]# ln -sv /usr/local/apache2/include /usr/include/httpd  ‘/usr/include/httpd’ -> ‘/usr/local/apache2/include’

3.2.7. 导出库文件

[root@GNOME-C7 ~]# vim /etc/ld.so.conf.d/httpd.conf  /usr/local/apache2/lib  [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# ldconfig -v  [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# ldconfig -p | grep apache      libaprutil-1.so.0 (libc6,x86-64) => /usr/local/apache2/lib/libaprutil-1.so.0      libaprutil-1.so (libc6,x86-64) => /usr/local/apache2/lib/libaprutil-1.so      libapr-1.so.0 (libc6,x86-64) => /usr/local/apache2/lib/libapr-1.so.0      libapr-1.so (libc6,x86-64) => /usr/local/apache2/lib/libapr-1.so

3.2.8. 创建服务管理脚本

两个脚本是从其他机器上复制的,然后改了一下文件与目录的路径

[root@GNOME-C7 ~]#  cat /etc/sysconfig/httpd  # Configuration file for the httpd service.    #  # The default processing model (MPM) is the process-based  # 'prefork' model.  A thread-based model, 'worker', is also  # available, but does not work with some modules (such as PHP).  # The service must be stopped before changing this variable.  #  HTTPD=/usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd    #  # To pass additional options (for instance, -D definitions) to the  # httpd binary at startup, set OPTIONS here.  #  #OPTIONS=    #  # By default, the httpd process is started in the C locale; to  # change the locale in which the server runs, the HTTPD_LANG  # variable can be set.  #  #HTTPD_LANG=C        [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# cat /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd  #!/bin/bash  #  # httpd        Startup script for the Apache HTTP Server  #  # chkconfig: - 85 15  # description: The Apache HTTP Server is an efficient and extensible    #           server implementing the current HTTP standards.  # processname: httpd  # config: /etc/httpd/httpd.conf  # config: /etc/sysconfig/httpd  # pidfile: /usr/local/apache2/logs/httpd.pid  #  ### BEGIN INIT INFO  # Provides: httpd  # Required-Start: $local_fs $remote_fs $network $named  # Required-Stop: $local_fs $remote_fs $network  # Should-Start: distcache  # Short-Description: start and stop Apache HTTP Server  # Description: The Apache HTTP Server is an extensible server  #  implementing the current HTTP standards.  ### END INIT INFO    # Source function library.  . /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions    if [ -f /etc/sysconfig/httpd ]; then          . /etc/sysconfig/httpd  fi    # Start httpd in the C locale by default.  HTTPD_LANG=${HTTPD_LANG-"C"}    # This will prevent initlog from swallowing up a pass-phrase prompt if  # mod_ssl needs a pass-phrase from the user.  INITLOG_ARGS=""    # Set HTTPD=/usr/sbin/httpd.worker in /etc/sysconfig/httpd to use a server  # with the thread-based "worker" MPM; BE WARNED that some modules may not  # work correctly with a thread-based MPM; notably PHP will refuse to start.    # Path to the apachectl script, server binary, and short-form for messages.  apachectl=/usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl  httpd=${HTTPD-/usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd}  prog=httpd  pidfile=${PIDFILE-/usr/local/apache2/logs/httpd.pid}  lockfile=${LOCKFILE-/var/lock/subsys/httpd}  RETVAL=0  STOP_TIMEOUT=${STOP_TIMEOUT-10}    # The semantics of these two functions differ from the way apachectl does  # things -- attempting to start while running is a failure, and shutdown  # when not running is also a failure.  So we just do it the way init scripts  # are expected to behave here.  start() {          echo -n $"Starting $prog: "          LANG=$HTTPD_LANG daemon --pidfile=${pidfile} $httpd $OPTIONS          RETVAL=$?          echo          [ $RETVAL = 0 ] && touch ${lockfile}          return $RETVAL  }    # When stopping httpd, a delay (of default 10 second) is required  # before SIGKILLing the httpd parent; this gives enough time for the  # httpd parent to SIGKILL any errant children.  stop() {      status -p ${pidfile} $httpd > /dev/null      if [[ $? = 0 ]]; then          echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "          killproc -p ${pidfile} -d ${STOP_TIMEOUT} $httpd      else          echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "          success      fi      RETVAL=$?      echo      [ $RETVAL = 0 ] && rm -f ${lockfile} ${pidfile}  }    reload() {      echo -n $"Reloading $prog: "      if ! LANG=$HTTPD_LANG $httpd $OPTIONS -t >&/dev/null; then          RETVAL=6          echo $"not reloading due to configuration syntax error"          failure $"not reloading $httpd due to configuration syntax error"      else          # Force LSB behaviour from killproc          LSB=1 killproc -p ${pidfile} $httpd -HUP          RETVAL=$?          if [ $RETVAL -eq 7 ]; then              failure $"httpd shutdown"          fi      fi      echo  }    # See how we were called.  case "$1" in    start)      start      ;;    stop)      stop      ;;    status)          status -p ${pidfile} $httpd      RETVAL=$?      ;;    restart)      stop      start      ;;    condrestart|try-restart)      if status -p ${pidfile} $httpd >&/dev/null; then          stop          start      fi      ;;    force-reload|reload)          reload      ;;    graceful|help|configtest|fullstatus)      $apachectl $@      RETVAL=$?      ;;    *)      echo $"Usage: $prog {start|stop|restart|condrestart|try-restart|force-reload|reload|status|fullstatus|graceful|help|configtest}"      RETVAL=2  esac    exit $RETVAL

3.2.9. 使用chkconfig管理

[root@GNOME-C7 ~]# chmod 755 /etc/init.d/httpd   [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# chkconfig --add httpd  [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# chkconfig --level 3 httpd on  [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# chkconfig --list | grep httpd  httpd              0:off    1:off    2:off    3:on    4:off    5:off    6:off

3.2.10. 启动服务

[root@GNOME-C7 ~]# service httpd start  Starting httpd (via systemctl):                            [  OK  ]  [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# ss -ant | grep 80  LISTEN     0      128          *:80                       *:*    [root@GNOME-C7 ~]# ps aux | grep http[d]        ##现在运行httpd的用户是daemon,可以在配置文件中更改  root     114229  0.0  0.0  97508  2536 ?        Ss   18:34   0:00 /usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd  daemon   114231  0.0  0.0 386420  4416 ?        Sl   18:34   0:00 /usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd  daemon   114232  0.0  0.0 386420  4416 ?        Sl   18:34   0:00 /usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd  daemon   114233  0.0  0.0 386420  4420 ?        Sl   18:34   0:00 /usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd  daemon   114234  0.0  0.0 386420  4420 ?        Sl   18:34   0:00 /usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd

3.2.11. 访问测试

Linux源代码编译安装详解

 


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