Linux 常见 RAID 及软 RAID 创建

RAID可以大幅度的提高磁盘性能,以及可靠性,这么好的技术怎么能不掌握呢!此篇介绍一些常见RAID,及其在Linux上的软RAID创建方法。


mdadm#

  • 创建软RAID
mdadm -C -v /dev/创建的设备名 -l级别 -n数量 添加的磁盘 [-x数量 添加的热备份盘]

-C:创建一个新的阵列--create
-v:显示细节--verbose
-l:设定RAID级别--level=
-n:指定阵列中可用device数目--raid-devices=
-x:指定初始阵列的富余device数目--spare-devices=,空闲盘(热备磁盘)能在工作盘损坏后自动顶替

  • 查看详细信息
mdadm -D /dev/设备名

-D:打印一个或多个md device的详细信息--detail

  • 查看RAID的状态
cat /proc/mdstat
  • 模拟损坏
mdadm -f /dev/设备名 磁盘

-f:模拟损坏fail

  • 移除损坏
mdadm -r /dev/设备名 磁盘

-r:移除remove

  • 添加新硬盘作为热备份盘
mdadm -a /dev/设备名 磁盘

-a:添加add


RAID0#

RAID0俗称条带,它将两个或多个硬盘组成一个逻辑硬盘,容量是所有硬盘之和,因为是多个硬盘组合成一个,故可并行写操作,写入速度提高,但此方式硬盘数据没有冗余,没有容错,一旦一个物理硬盘损坏,则所有数据均丢失。因而,RAID0适合于对数据量大,但安全性要求不高的场景,比如音像、视频文件的存储等。

Linux 常见 RAID 及软 RAID 创建

实验RAID0创建,格式化,挂载使用。

1.添加220G的硬盘,分区,类型IDfd

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -l | grep raid  /dev/sdb1            2048    41943039    20970496   fd  Linux raid autodetect  /dev/sdc1            2048    41943039    20970496   fd  Linux raid autodetect

2.创建RAID0

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -C -v /dev/md0 -l0 -n2 /dev/sd{b,c}1  mdadm: chunk size defaults to 512K  mdadm: Fail create md0 when using /sys/module/md_mod/parameters/new_array  mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata  mdadm: array /dev/md0 started.

3.查看raidstat状态。

[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/mdstat  Personalities : [raid0]  md0 : active raid0 sdc1[1] sdb1[0]        41906176 blocks super 1.2 512k chunks    unused devices: <none>

4.查看RAID0的详细信息。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md0  /dev/md0:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 15:28:13 2019          Raid Level : raid0          Array Size : 41906176 (39.96 GiB 42.91 GB)        Raid Devices : 2       Total Devices : 2         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 15:28:13 2019               State : clean      Active Devices : 2     Working Devices : 2      Failed Devices : 0       Spare Devices : 0            Chunk Size : 512K    Consistency Policy : none                  Name : localhost:0  (local to host localhost)                UUID : 7ff54c57:b99a59da:6b56c6d5:a4576ccf              Events : 0        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         0       8       17        0      active sync   /dev/sdb1         1       8       33        1      active sync   /dev/sdc1

5.格式化。

[root@localhost ~]# mkfs.xfs /dev/md0  meta-data=/dev/md0               isize=512    agcount=16, agsize=654720 blks           =                       sectsz=512   attr=2, projid32bit=1           =                       crc=1        finobt=0, sparse=0  data     =                       bsize=4096   blocks=10475520, imaxpct=25           =                       sunit=128    swidth=256 blks  naming   =version 2              bsize=4096   ascii-ci=0 ftype=1  log      =internal log           bsize=4096   blocks=5120, version=2           =                       sectsz=512   sunit=8 blks, lazy-count=1  realtime =none                   extsz=4096   blocks=0, rtextents=0

6.挂载使用。

[root@localhost ~]# mkdir /mnt/md0  [root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/md0 /mnt/md0/  [root@localhost ~]# df -hT  Filesystem              Type      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on  /dev/mapper/CentOS-root xfs        17G 1013M   16G   6% /  devtmpfs                devtmpfs  901M     0  901M   0% /dev  tmpfs                   tmpfs     912M     0  912M   0% /dev/shm  tmpfs                   tmpfs     912M  8.7M  904M   1% /run  tmpfs                   tmpfs     912M     0  912M   0% /sys/fs/cgroup  /dev/sda1               xfs      1014M  143M  872M  15% /boot  tmpfs                   tmpfs     183M     0  183M   0% /run/user/0  /dev/md0                xfs        40G   33M   40G   1% /mnt/md0

RAID1#

RAID1俗称镜像,它最少由两个硬盘组成,且两个硬盘上存储的数据均相同,以实现数据冗余。RAID1读操作速度有所提高,写操作理论上与单硬盘速度一样,但由于数据需要同时写入所有硬盘,实际上稍为下降。容错性是所有组合方式里最好的,只要有一块硬盘正常,则能保持正常工作。但它对硬盘容量的利用率则是最低,只有50%,因而成本也是最高。RAID1适合对数据安全性要求非常高的场景,比如存储数据库数据文件之类。

Linux 常见 RAID 及软 RAID 创建

实验RAID1创建,格式化,挂载使用,故障模拟,重新添加热备份。

1.添加320G的硬盘,分区,类型IDfd

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -l | grep raid  /dev/sdb1            2048    41943039    20970496   fd  Linux raid autodetect  /dev/sdc1            2048    41943039    20970496   fd  Linux raid autodetect  /dev/sdd1            2048    41943039    20970496   fd  Linux raid autodetect

2.创建RAID1,并添加1个热备份盘。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -C -v /dev/md1 -l1 -n2 /dev/sd{b,c}1 -x1 /dev/sdd1  mdadm: Note: this array has metadata at the start and      may not be suitable as a boot device.  If you plan to      store '/boot' on this device please ensure that      your boot-loader understands md/v1.x metadata, or use      --metadata=0.90  mdadm: size set to 20953088K  Continue creating array? y  mdadm: Fail create md1 when using /sys/module/md_mod/parameters/new_array  mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata  mdadm: array /dev/md1 started.

3.查看raidstat状态。

[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/mdstat  Personalities : [raid1]  md1 : active raid1 sdd1[2](S) sdc1[1] sdb1[0]        20953088 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU]        [========>............]  resync = 44.6% (9345792/20953088) finish=0.9min speed=203996K/sec    unused devices: <none>
[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/mdstat  Personalities : [raid1]  md1 : active raid1 sdd1[2](S) sdc1[1] sdb1[0]        20953088 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU]    unused devices: <none>

4.查看RAID1的详细信息。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md1  /dev/md1:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 15:38:44 2019          Raid Level : raid1          Array Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 2       Total Devices : 3         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 15:39:24 2019               State : clean, resyncing      Active Devices : 2     Working Devices : 3      Failed Devices : 0       Spare Devices : 1    Consistency Policy : resync         Resync Status : 40% complete                  Name : localhost:1  (local to host localhost)                UUID : b921e8b3:a18e2fc9:11706ba4:ed633dfd              Events : 6        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         0       8       17        0      active sync   /dev/sdb1         1       8       33        1      active sync   /dev/sdc1           2       8       49        -      spare   /dev/sdd1

5.格式化。

[root@localhost ~]# mkfs.xfs /dev/md1  meta-data=/dev/md1               isize=512    agcount=4, agsize=1309568 blks           =                       sectsz=512   attr=2, projid32bit=1           =                       crc=1        finobt=0, sparse=0  data     =                       bsize=4096   blocks=5238272, imaxpct=25           =                       sunit=0      swidth=0 blks  naming   =version 2              bsize=4096   ascii-ci=0 ftype=1  log      =internal log           bsize=4096   blocks=2560, version=2           =                       sectsz=512   sunit=0 blks, lazy-count=1  realtime =none                   extsz=4096   blocks=0, rtextents=0

6.挂载使用。

[root@localhost ~]# mkdir /mnt/md1  [root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/md1 /mnt/md1/  [root@localhost ~]# df -hT  Filesystem              Type      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on  /dev/mapper/centos-root xfs        17G 1014M   16G   6% /  devtmpfs                devtmpfs  901M     0  901M   0% /dev  tmpfs                   tmpfs     912M     0  912M   0% /dev/shm  tmpfs                   tmpfs     912M  8.7M  904M   1% /run  tmpfs                   tmpfs     912M     0  912M   0% /sys/fs/cgroup  /dev/sda1               xfs      1014M  143M  872M  15% /boot  tmpfs                   tmpfs     183M     0  183M   0% /run/user/0  /dev/md1                xfs        20G   33M   20G   1% /mnt/md1

7.创建测试文件。

[root@localhost ~]# touch /mnt/md1/test{1..9}.txt  [root@localhost ~]# ls /mnt/md1/  test1.txt  test2.txt  test3.txt  test4.txt  test5.txt  test6.txt  test7.txt  test8.txt  test9.txt

8.故障模拟。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -f /dev/md1 /dev/sdb1  mdadm: set /dev/sdb1 faulty in /dev/md1

9.查看测试文件。

[root@localhost ~]# ls /mnt/md1/  test1.txt  test2.txt  test3.txt  test4.txt  test5.txt  test6.txt  test7.txt  test8.txt  test9.txt

10.查看状态。

[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/mdstat  Personalities : [raid1]  md1 : active raid1 sdd1[2] sdc1[1] sdb1[0](F)        20953088 blocks super 1.2 [2/1] [_U]        [=====>...............]  recovery = 26.7% (5600384/20953088) finish=1.2min speed=200013K/sec    unused devices: <none>
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md1  /dev/md1:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 15:38:44 2019          Raid Level : raid1          Array Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 2       Total Devices : 3         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 15:47:57 2019               State : active, degraded, recovering      Active Devices : 1     Working Devices : 2      Failed Devices : 1       Spare Devices : 1    Consistency Policy : resync        Rebuild Status : 17% complete                  Name : localhost:1  (local to host localhost)                UUID : b921e8b3:a18e2fc9:11706ba4:ed633dfd              Events : 22        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         2       8       49        0      spare rebuilding   /dev/sdd1         1       8       33        1      active sync   /dev/sdc1           0       8       17        -      faulty   /dev/sdb1

11.再次查看状态。

[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/mdstat  Personalities : [raid1]  md1 : active raid1 sdd1[2] sdc1[1] sdb1[0](F)        20953088 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU]    unused devices: <none>
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md1  /dev/md1:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 15:38:44 2019          Raid Level : raid1          Array Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 2       Total Devices : 3         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 15:49:28 2019               State : active      Active Devices : 2     Working Devices : 2      Failed Devices : 1       Spare Devices : 0    Consistency Policy : resync                  Name : localhost:1  (local to host localhost)                UUID : b921e8b3:a18e2fc9:11706ba4:ed633dfd              Events : 37        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         2       8       49        0      active sync   /dev/sdd1         1       8       33        1      active sync   /dev/sdc1           0       8       17        -      faulty   /dev/sdb1

12.移除损坏的磁盘

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -r /dev/md1 /dev/sdb1  mdadm: hot removed /dev/sdb1 from /dev/md1
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md1  /dev/md1:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 15:38:44 2019          Raid Level : raid1          Array Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 2       Total Devices : 2         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 15:52:57 2019               State : active      Active Devices : 2     Working Devices : 2      Failed Devices : 0       Spare Devices : 0    Consistency Policy : resync                  Name : localhost:1  (local to host localhost)                UUID : b921e8b3:a18e2fc9:11706ba4:ed633dfd              Events : 38        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         2       8       49        0      active sync   /dev/sdd1         1       8       33        1      active sync   /dev/sdc1

13.重新添加热备份盘。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -a /dev/md1 /dev/sdb1  mdadm: added /dev/sdb1
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md1  /dev/md1:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 15:38:44 2019          Raid Level : raid1          Array Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 2       Total Devices : 3         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 15:53:32 2019               State : active      Active Devices : 2     Working Devices : 3      Failed Devices : 0       Spare Devices : 1    Consistency Policy : resync                  Name : localhost:1  (local to host localhost)                UUID : b921e8b3:a18e2fc9:11706ba4:ed633dfd              Events : 39        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         2       8       49        0      active sync   /dev/sdd1         1       8       33        1      active sync   /dev/sdc1           3       8       17        -      spare   /dev/sdb1

RAID5#

RAID5最少由三个硬盘组成,它将数据分散存储于阵列中的每个硬盘,并且还伴有一个数据校验位,数据位与校验位通过算法能相互验证,当丢失其中的一位时,RAID控制器能通过算法,利用其它两位数据将丢失的数据进行计算还原。因而RAID5最多能允许一个硬盘损坏,有容错性。RAID5相对于其它的组合方式,在容错与成本方面有一个平衡,因而受到大多数使用者的欢迎。一般的磁盘阵列,最常使用的就是RAID5这种方式。

Linux 常见 RAID 及软 RAID 创建

实验RAID5创建,格式化,挂载使用,故障模拟,重新添加热备份。

1.添加420G的硬盘,分区,类型IDfd

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -l | grep raid  /dev/sdb1            2048    41943039    20970496   fd  Linux raid autodetect  /dev/sdc1            2048    41943039    20970496   fd  Linux raid autodetect  /dev/sdd1            2048    41943039    20970496   fd  Linux raid autodetect  /dev/sde1            2048    41943039    20970496   fd  Linux raid autodetect

2.创建RAID5,并添加1个热备份盘。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -C -v /dev/md5 -l5 -n3 /dev/sd[b-d]1 -x1 /dev/sde1  mdadm: layout defaults to left-symmetric  mdadm: layout defaults to left-symmetric  mdadm: chunk size defaults to 512K  mdadm: size set to 20953088K  mdadm: Fail create md5 when using /sys/module/md_mod/parameters/new_array  mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata  mdadm: array /dev/md5 started.

3.查看raidstat状态。

[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/mdstat  Personalities : [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]  md5 : active raid5 sdd1[4] sde1[3](S) sdc1[1] sdb1[0]        41906176 blocks super 1.2 level 5, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [3/2] [UU_]        [====>................]  recovery = 24.1% (5057340/20953088) finish=1.3min speed=202293K/sec    unused devices: <none>
[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/mdstat  Personalities : [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]  md5 : active raid5 sdd1[4] sde1[3](S) sdc1[1] sdb1[0]        41906176 blocks super 1.2 level 5, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [3/3] [UUU]    unused devices: <none>

4.查看RAID5的详细信息。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md5  /dev/md5:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 16:13:44 2019          Raid Level : raid5          Array Size : 41906176 (39.96 GiB 42.91 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 3       Total Devices : 4         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 16:15:29 2019               State : clean      Active Devices : 3     Working Devices : 4      Failed Devices : 0       Spare Devices : 1                Layout : left-symmetric          Chunk Size : 512K    Consistency Policy : resync                  Name : localhost:5  (local to host localhost)                UUID : a055094e:9adaff79:2edae9b9:0dcc3f1b              Events : 18        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         0       8       17        0      active sync   /dev/sdb1         1       8       33        1      active sync   /dev/sdc1         4       8       49        2      active sync   /dev/sdd1           3       8       65        -      spare   /dev/sde1

5.格式化。

[root@localhost ~]# mkfs.xfs /dev/md5  meta-data=/dev/md5               isize=512    agcount=16, agsize=654720 blks           =                       sectsz=512   attr=2, projid32bit=1           =                       crc=1        finobt=0, sparse=0  data     =                       bsize=4096   blocks=10475520, imaxpct=25           =                       sunit=128    swidth=256 blks  naming   =version 2              bsize=4096   ascii-ci=0 ftype=1  log      =internal log           bsize=4096   blocks=5120, version=2           =                       sectsz=512   sunit=8 blks, lazy-count=1  realtime =none                   extsz=4096   blocks=0, rtextents=0

6.挂载使用。

[root@localhost ~]# mkdir /mnt/md5  [root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/md5 /mnt/md5/  [root@localhost ~]# df -hT  Filesystem              Type      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on  /dev/mapper/centos-root xfs        17G 1014M   16G   6% /  devtmpfs                devtmpfs  901M     0  901M   0% /dev  tmpfs                   tmpfs     912M     0  912M   0% /dev/shm  tmpfs                   tmpfs     912M  8.7M  904M   1% /run  tmpfs                   tmpfs     912M     0  912M   0% /sys/fs/cgroup  /dev/sda1               xfs      1014M  143M  872M  15% /boot  tmpfs                   tmpfs     183M     0  183M   0% /run/user/0  /dev/md5                xfs        40G   33M   40G   1% /mnt/md5

7.创建测试文件。

[root@localhost ~]# touch /mnt/md5/test{1..9}.txt  [root@localhost ~]# ls /mnt/md5/  test1.txt  test2.txt  test3.txt  test4.txt  test5.txt  test6.txt  test7.txt  test8.txt  test9.txt

8.故障模拟。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -f /dev/md5 /dev/sdb1  mdadm: set /dev/sdb1 faulty in /dev/md5

9.查看测试文件。

[root@localhost ~]# ls /mnt/md5/  test1.txt  test2.txt  test3.txt  test4.txt  test5.txt  test6.txt  test7.txt  test8.txt  test9.txt

10.查看状态。

[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/mdstat  Personalities : [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]  md5 : active raid5 sdd1[4] sde1[3] sdc1[1] sdb1[0](F)        41906176 blocks super 1.2 level 5, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [3/2] [_UU]        [====>................]  recovery = 21.0% (4411136/20953088) finish=1.3min speed=210054K/sec    unused devices: <none>
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md5  /dev/md5:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 16:13:44 2019          Raid Level : raid5          Array Size : 41906176 (39.96 GiB 42.91 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 3       Total Devices : 4         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 16:21:31 2019               State : clean, degraded, recovering      Active Devices : 2     Working Devices : 3      Failed Devices : 1       Spare Devices : 1                Layout : left-symmetric          Chunk Size : 512K    Consistency Policy : resync        Rebuild Status : 12% complete                  Name : localhost:5  (local to host localhost)                UUID : a055094e:9adaff79:2edae9b9:0dcc3f1b              Events : 23        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         3       8       65        0      spare rebuilding   /dev/sde1         1       8       33        1      active sync   /dev/sdc1         4       8       49        2      active sync   /dev/sdd1           0       8       17        -      faulty   /dev/sdb1

11.再次查看状态。

[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/mdstat  Personalities : [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]  md5 : active raid5 sdd1[4] sde1[3] sdc1[1] sdb1[0](F)        41906176 blocks super 1.2 level 5, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [3/3] [UUU]    unused devices: <none>
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md5  /dev/md5:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 16:13:44 2019          Raid Level : raid5          Array Size : 41906176 (39.96 GiB 42.91 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 3       Total Devices : 4         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 16:23:09 2019               State : clean      Active Devices : 3     Working Devices : 3      Failed Devices : 1       Spare Devices : 0                Layout : left-symmetric          Chunk Size : 512K    Consistency Policy : resync                  Name : localhost:5  (local to host localhost)                UUID : a055094e:9adaff79:2edae9b9:0dcc3f1b              Events : 39        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         3       8       65        0      active sync   /dev/sde1         1       8       33        1      active sync   /dev/sdc1         4       8       49        2      active sync   /dev/sdd1           0       8       17        -      faulty   /dev/sdb1

12.移除损坏的磁盘。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -r /dev/md5 /dev/sdb1  mdadm: hot removed /dev/sdb1 from /dev/md5
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md5  /dev/md5:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 16:13:44 2019          Raid Level : raid5          Array Size : 41906176 (39.96 GiB 42.91 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 3       Total Devices : 3         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 16:25:01 2019               State : clean      Active Devices : 3     Working Devices : 3      Failed Devices : 0       Spare Devices : 0                Layout : left-symmetric          Chunk Size : 512K    Consistency Policy : resync                  Name : localhost:5  (local to host localhost)                UUID : a055094e:9adaff79:2edae9b9:0dcc3f1b              Events : 40        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         3       8       65        0      active sync   /dev/sde1         1       8       33        1      active sync   /dev/sdc1         4       8       49        2      active sync   /dev/sdd1

13.重新添加热备份盘。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -a /dev/md5 /dev/sdb1  mdadm: added /dev/sdb1
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md5  /dev/md5:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 16:13:44 2019          Raid Level : raid5          Array Size : 41906176 (39.96 GiB 42.91 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 3       Total Devices : 4         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 16:25:22 2019               State : clean      Active Devices : 3     Working Devices : 4      Failed Devices : 0       Spare Devices : 1                Layout : left-symmetric          Chunk Size : 512K    Consistency Policy : resync                  Name : localhost:5  (local to host localhost)                UUID : a055094e:9adaff79:2edae9b9:0dcc3f1b              Events : 41        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         3       8       65        0      active sync   /dev/sde1         1       8       33        1      active sync   /dev/sdc1         4       8       49        2      active sync   /dev/sdd1           5       8       17        -      spare   /dev/sdb1

RAID6#

RAID6是在RAID5的基础上改良而成的,RAID6再将数据校验位增加一位,所以允许损坏的硬盘数量也由 RAID5的一个增加到二个。由于同一阵列中两个硬盘同时损坏的概率非常少,所以,RAID6用增加一块硬盘的代价,换来了比RAID5更高的数据安全性。

Linux 常见 RAID 及软 RAID 创建

实验RAID6创建,格式化,挂载使用,故障模拟,重新添加热备份。

1.添加620G的硬盘,分区,类型IDfd

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -l | grep raid  /dev/sdb1            2048    41943039    20970496   fd  Linux raid autodetect  /dev/sdc1            2048    41943039    20970496   fd  Linux raid autodetect  /dev/sdd1            2048    41943039    20970496   fd  Linux raid autodetect  /dev/sde1            2048    41943039    20970496   fd  Linux raid autodetect  /dev/sdf1            2048    41943039    20970496   fd  Linux raid autodetect  /dev/sdg1            2048    41943039    20970496   fd  Linux raid autodetect

2.创建RAID6,并添加2个热备份盘。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -C -v /dev/md6 -l6 -n4 /dev/sd[b-e]1 -x2 /dev/sd[f-g]1  mdadm: layout defaults to left-symmetric  mdadm: layout defaults to left-symmetric  mdadm: chunk size defaults to 512K  mdadm: size set to 20953088K  mdadm: Fail create md6 when using /sys/module/md_mod/parameters/new_array  mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata  mdadm: array /dev/md6 started.

3.查看raidstat状态。

[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/mdstat  Personalities : [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]  md6 : active raid6 sdg1[5](S) sdf1[4](S) sde1[3] sdd1[2] sdc1[1] sdb1[0]        41906176 blocks super 1.2 level 6, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [4/4] [UUUU]        [===>.................]  resync = 18.9% (3962940/20953088) finish=1.3min speed=208575K/sec    unused devices: <none>
[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/mdstat  Personalities : [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]  md6 : active raid6 sdg1[5](S) sdf1[4](S) sde1[3] sdd1[2] sdc1[1] sdb1[0]        41906176 blocks super 1.2 level 6, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [4/4] [UUUU]    unused devices: <none>

4.查看RAID6的详细信息。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md6  /dev/md6:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 16:34:36 2019          Raid Level : raid6          Array Size : 41906176 (39.96 GiB 42.91 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 4       Total Devices : 6         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 16:34:43 2019               State : clean, resyncing      Active Devices : 4     Working Devices : 6      Failed Devices : 0       Spare Devices : 2                Layout : left-symmetric          Chunk Size : 512K    Consistency Policy : resync         Resync Status : 10% complete                  Name : localhost:6  (local to host localhost)                UUID : 7c3d15a2:4066f2c6:742f3e4c:82aae1bb              Events : 1        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         0       8       17        0      active sync   /dev/sdb1         1       8       33        1      active sync   /dev/sdc1         2       8       49        2      active sync   /dev/sdd1         3       8       65        3      active sync   /dev/sde1           4       8       81        -      spare   /dev/sdf1         5       8       97        -      spare   /dev/sdg1

5.格式化。

[root@localhost ~]# mkfs.xfs /dev/md6  meta-data=/dev/md6               isize=512    agcount=16, agsize=654720 blks           =                       sectsz=512   attr=2, projid32bit=1           =                       crc=1        finobt=0, sparse=0  data     =                       bsize=4096   blocks=10475520, imaxpct=25           =                       sunit=128    swidth=256 blks  naming   =version 2              bsize=4096   ascii-ci=0 ftype=1  log      =internal log           bsize=4096   blocks=5120, version=2           =                       sectsz=512   sunit=8 blks, lazy-count=1  realtime =none                   extsz=4096   blocks=0, rtextents=0

6.挂载使用。

[root@localhost ~]# mkdir /mnt/md6  [root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/md6 /mnt/md6/  [root@localhost ~]# df -hT  Filesystem              Type      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on  /dev/mapper/centos-root xfs        17G 1014M   16G   6% /  devtmpfs                devtmpfs  901M     0  901M   0% /dev  tmpfs                   tmpfs     912M     0  912M   0% /dev/shm  tmpfs                   tmpfs     912M  8.7M  903M   1% /run  tmpfs                   tmpfs     912M     0  912M   0% /sys/fs/cgroup  /dev/sda1               xfs      1014M  143M  872M  15% /boot  tmpfs                   tmpfs     183M     0  183M   0% /run/user/0  /dev/md6                xfs        40G   33M   40G   1% /mnt/md6

7.创建测试文件。

[root@localhost ~]# touch /mnt/md6/test{1..9}.txt  [root@localhost ~]# ls /mnt/md6/  test1.txt  test2.txt  test3.txt  test4.txt  test5.txt  test6.txt  test7.txt  test8.txt  test9.txt

8.故障模拟。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -f /dev/md6 /dev/sdb1  mdadm: set /dev/sdb1 faulty in /dev/md6  [root@localhost ~]# mdadm -f /dev/md6 /dev/sdc1  mdadm: set /dev/sdc1 faulty in /dev/md6

9.查看测试文件。

[root@localhost ~]# ls /mnt/md6/  test1.txt  test2.txt  test3.txt  test4.txt  test5.txt  test6.txt  test7.txt  test8.txt  test9.txt

10.查看状态。

[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/mdstat  Personalities : [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]  md6 : active raid6 sdg1[5] sdf1[4] sde1[3] sdd1[2] sdc1[1](F) sdb1[0](F)        41906176 blocks super 1.2 level 6, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [4/2] [__UU]        [====>................]  recovery = 23.8% (4993596/20953088) finish=1.2min speed=208066K/sec    unused devices: <none>
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md6  /dev/md6:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 16:34:36 2019          Raid Level : raid6          Array Size : 41906176 (39.96 GiB 42.91 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 4       Total Devices : 6         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 16:41:09 2019               State : clean, degraded, recovering      Active Devices : 2     Working Devices : 4      Failed Devices : 2       Spare Devices : 2                Layout : left-symmetric          Chunk Size : 512K    Consistency Policy : resync        Rebuild Status : 13% complete                  Name : localhost:6  (local to host localhost)                UUID : 7c3d15a2:4066f2c6:742f3e4c:82aae1bb              Events : 27        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         5       8       97        0      spare rebuilding   /dev/sdg1         4       8       81        1      spare rebuilding   /dev/sdf1         2       8       49        2      active sync   /dev/sdd1         3       8       65        3      active sync   /dev/sde1           0       8       17        -      faulty   /dev/sdb1         1       8       33        -      faulty   /dev/sdc1

11.再次查看状态。

[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/mdstat  Personalities : [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]  md6 : active raid6 sdg1[5] sdf1[4] sde1[3] sdd1[2] sdc1[1](F) sdb1[0](F)        41906176 blocks super 1.2 level 6, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [4/4] [UUUU]    unused devices: <none>
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md6  /dev/md6:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 16:34:36 2019          Raid Level : raid6          Array Size : 41906176 (39.96 GiB 42.91 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 4       Total Devices : 6         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 16:42:42 2019               State : clean      Active Devices : 4     Working Devices : 4      Failed Devices : 2       Spare Devices : 0                Layout : left-symmetric          Chunk Size : 512K    Consistency Policy : resync                  Name : localhost:6  (local to host localhost)                UUID : 7c3d15a2:4066f2c6:742f3e4c:82aae1bb              Events : 46        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         5       8       97        0      active sync   /dev/sdg1         4       8       81        1      active sync   /dev/sdf1         2       8       49        2      active sync   /dev/sdd1         3       8       65        3      active sync   /dev/sde1           0       8       17        -      faulty   /dev/sdb1         1       8       33        -      faulty   /dev/sdc1

12.移除损坏的磁盘。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -r /dev/md6 /dev/sd{b,c}1  mdadm: hot removed /dev/sdb1 from /dev/md6  mdadm: hot removed /dev/sdc1 from /dev/md6
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md6  /dev/md6:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 16:34:36 2019          Raid Level : raid6          Array Size : 41906176 (39.96 GiB 42.91 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 4       Total Devices : 4         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 16:43:43 2019               State : clean      Active Devices : 4     Working Devices : 4      Failed Devices : 0       Spare Devices : 0                Layout : left-symmetric          Chunk Size : 512K    Consistency Policy : resync                  Name : localhost:6  (local to host localhost)                UUID : 7c3d15a2:4066f2c6:742f3e4c:82aae1bb              Events : 47        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         5       8       97        0      active sync   /dev/sdg1         4       8       81        1      active sync   /dev/sdf1         2       8       49        2      active sync   /dev/sdd1         3       8       65        3      active sync   /dev/sde1

13.重新添加热备份盘。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -a /dev/md6 /dev/sd{b,c}1  mdadm: added /dev/sdb1  mdadm: added /dev/sdc1
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md6  /dev/md6:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 16:34:36 2019          Raid Level : raid6          Array Size : 41906176 (39.96 GiB 42.91 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 4       Total Devices : 6         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 16:44:01 2019               State : clean      Active Devices : 4     Working Devices : 6      Failed Devices : 0       Spare Devices : 2                Layout : left-symmetric          Chunk Size : 512K    Consistency Policy : resync                  Name : localhost:6  (local to host localhost)                UUID : 7c3d15a2:4066f2c6:742f3e4c:82aae1bb              Events : 49        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         5       8       97        0      active sync   /dev/sdg1         4       8       81        1      active sync   /dev/sdf1         2       8       49        2      active sync   /dev/sdd1         3       8       65        3      active sync   /dev/sde1           6       8       17        -      spare   /dev/sdb1         7       8       33        -      spare   /dev/sdc1

RAID10#

RAID10是先将数据进行镜像操作,然后再对数据进行分组,RAID1在这里就是一个冗余的备份阵列,而RAID0则负责数据的读写阵列。至少要四块盘,两两组合做RAID1,然后做RAID0RAID10对存储容量的利用率和RAID1一样低,只有50%Raid10方案造成了50%的磁盘浪费,但是它提供了200%的速度和单磁盘损坏的数据安全性,并且当同时损坏的磁盘不在同一RAID1中,就能保证数据安全性,RAID10能提供比RAID5更好的性能。这种新结构的可扩充性不好,使用此方案比较昂贵。

Linux 常见 RAID 及软 RAID 创建

实验RAID10创建,格式化,挂载使用,故障模拟,重新添加热备份。

1.添加420G的硬盘,分区,类型IDfd

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -l | grep raid  /dev/sdb1            2048    41943039    20970496   fd  Linux raid autodetect  /dev/sdc1            2048    41943039    20970496   fd  Linux raid autodetect  /dev/sdd1            2048    41943039    20970496   fd  Linux raid autodetect  /dev/sde1            2048    41943039    20970496   fd  Linux raid autodetect

2.创建两个RAID1,不添加热备份盘。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -C -v /dev/md101 -l1 -n2 /dev/sd{b,c}1  mdadm: Note: this array has metadata at the start and      may not be suitable as a boot device.  If you plan to      store '/boot' on this device please ensure that      your boot-loader understands md/v1.x metadata, or use      --metadata=0.90  mdadm: size set to 20953088K  Continue creating array? y  mdadm: Fail create md101 when using /sys/module/md_mod/parameters/new_array  mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata  mdadm: array /dev/md101 started.
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -C -v /dev/md102 -l1 -n2 /dev/sd{d,e}1  mdadm: Note: this array has metadata at the start and      may not be suitable as a boot device.  If you plan to      store '/boot' on this device please ensure that      your boot-loader understands md/v1.x metadata, or use      --metadata=0.90  mdadm: size set to 20953088K  Continue creating array? y  mdadm: Fail create md102 when using /sys/module/md_mod/parameters/new_array  mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata  mdadm: array /dev/md102 started.

3.查看raidstat状态。

[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/mdstat  Personalities : [raid1]  md102 : active raid1 sde1[1] sdd1[0]        20953088 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU]        [=========>...........]  resync = 48.4% (10148224/20953088) finish=0.8min speed=200056K/sec    md101 : active raid1 sdc1[1] sdb1[0]        20953088 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU]        [=============>.......]  resync = 69.6% (14604672/20953088) finish=0.5min speed=200052K/sec    unused devices: <none>
[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/mdstat  Personalities : [raid1]  md102 : active raid1 sde1[1] sdd1[0]        20953088 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU]    md101 : active raid1 sdc1[1] sdb1[0]        20953088 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU]    unused devices: <none>

4.查看两个RAID1的详细信息。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md101  /dev/md101:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 16:53:00 2019          Raid Level : raid1          Array Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 2       Total Devices : 2         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 16:53:58 2019               State : clean, resyncing      Active Devices : 2     Working Devices : 2      Failed Devices : 0       Spare Devices : 0    Consistency Policy : resync         Resync Status : 62% complete                  Name : localhost:101  (local to host localhost)                UUID : 80bb4fc5:1a628936:275ba828:17f23330              Events : 9        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         0       8       17        0      active sync   /dev/sdb1         1       8       33        1      active sync   /dev/sdc1
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md102  /dev/md102:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 16:53:23 2019          Raid Level : raid1          Array Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 2       Total Devices : 2         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 16:54:02 2019               State : clean, resyncing      Active Devices : 2     Working Devices : 2      Failed Devices : 0       Spare Devices : 0    Consistency Policy : resync         Resync Status : 42% complete                  Name : localhost:102  (local to host localhost)                UUID : 38abac72:74fa8a53:3a21b5e4:01ae64cd              Events : 6        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         0       8       49        0      active sync   /dev/sdd1         1       8       65        1      active sync   /dev/sde1

5.创建RAID10

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -C -v /dev/md10 -l0 -n2 /dev/md10{1,2}  mdadm: chunk size defaults to 512K  mdadm: Fail create md10 when using /sys/module/md_mod/parameters/new_array  mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata  mdadm: array /dev/md10 started.

6.查看raidstat状态。

[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/mdstat  Personalities : [raid1] [raid0]  md10 : active raid0 md102[1] md101[0]        41871360 blocks super 1.2 512k chunks    md102 : active raid1 sde1[1] sdd1[0]        20953088 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU]    md101 : active raid1 sdc1[1] sdb1[0]        20953088 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU]    unused devices: <none>

7.查看RAID10的详细信息。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md10  /dev/md10:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 16:56:08 2019          Raid Level : raid0          Array Size : 41871360 (39.93 GiB 42.88 GB)        Raid Devices : 2       Total Devices : 2         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 16:56:08 2019               State : clean      Active Devices : 2     Working Devices : 2      Failed Devices : 0       Spare Devices : 0            Chunk Size : 512K    Consistency Policy : none                  Name : localhost:10  (local to host localhost)                UUID : 23c6abac:b131a049:db25cac8:686fb045              Events : 0        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         0       9      101        0      active sync   /dev/md101         1       9      102        1      active sync   /dev/md102

8.格式化。

[root@localhost ~]# mkfs.xfs /dev/md10  meta-data=/dev/md10              isize=512    agcount=16, agsize=654208 blks           =                       sectsz=512   attr=2, projid32bit=1           =                       crc=1        finobt=0, sparse=0  data     =                       bsize=4096   blocks=10467328, imaxpct=25           =                       sunit=128    swidth=256 blks  naming   =version 2              bsize=4096   ascii-ci=0 ftype=1  log      =internal log           bsize=4096   blocks=5112, version=2           =                       sectsz=512   sunit=8 blks, lazy-count=1  realtime =none                   extsz=4096   blocks=0, rtextents=0

9.挂载使用。

[root@localhost ~]# mkdir /mnt/md10  [root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/md10 /mnt/md10/  [root@localhost ~]# df -hT  Filesystem              Type      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on  /dev/mapper/centos-root xfs        17G 1014M   16G   6% /  devtmpfs                devtmpfs  901M     0  901M   0% /dev  tmpfs                   tmpfs     912M     0  912M   0% /dev/shm  tmpfs                   tmpfs     912M  8.7M  903M   1% /run  tmpfs                   tmpfs     912M     0  912M   0% /sys/fs/cgroup  /dev/sda1               xfs      1014M  143M  872M  15% /boot  tmpfs                   tmpfs     183M     0  183M   0% /run/user/0  /dev/md10               xfs        40G   33M   40G   1% /mnt/md10

10.创建测试文件。

[root@localhost ~]# touch /mnt/md10/test{1..9}.txt  [root@localhost ~]# ls /mnt/md10/  test1.txt  test2.txt  test3.txt  test4.txt  test5.txt  test6.txt  test7.txt  test8.txt  test9.txt

11.故障模拟。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -f /dev/md101 /dev/sdb1  mdadm: set /dev/sdb1 faulty in /dev/md101  [root@localhost ~]# mdadm -f /dev/md102 /dev/sdd1  mdadm: set /dev/sdd1 faulty in /dev/md102

12.查看测试文件。

[root@localhost ~]# ls /mnt/md10/  test1.txt  test2.txt  test3.txt  test4.txt  test5.txt  test6.txt  test7.txt  test8.txt  test9.txt

13.查看状态。

[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/mdstat  Personalities : [raid1] [raid0]  md10 : active raid0 md102[1] md101[0]        41871360 blocks super 1.2 512k chunks    md102 : active raid1 sde1[1] sdd1[0](F)        20953088 blocks super 1.2 [2/1] [_U]    md101 : active raid1 sdc1[1] sdb1[0](F)        20953088 blocks super 1.2 [2/1] [_U]    unused devices: <none>
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md101  /dev/md101:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 16:53:00 2019          Raid Level : raid1          Array Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 2       Total Devices : 2         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 17:01:11 2019               State : clean, degraded      Active Devices : 1     Working Devices : 1      Failed Devices : 1       Spare Devices : 0    Consistency Policy : resync                  Name : localhost:101  (local to host localhost)                UUID : 80bb4fc5:1a628936:275ba828:17f23330              Events : 23        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         -       0        0        0      removed         1       8       33        1      active sync   /dev/sdc1           0       8       17        -      faulty   /dev/sdb1
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md102  /dev/md102:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 16:53:23 2019          Raid Level : raid1          Array Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 2       Total Devices : 2         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 17:00:43 2019               State : clean, degraded      Active Devices : 1     Working Devices : 1      Failed Devices : 1       Spare Devices : 0    Consistency Policy : resync                  Name : localhost:102  (local to host localhost)                UUID : 38abac72:74fa8a53:3a21b5e4:01ae64cd              Events : 19        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         -       0        0        0      removed         1       8       65        1      active sync   /dev/sde1           0       8       49        -      faulty   /dev/sdd1
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md10  /dev/md10:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 16:56:08 2019          Raid Level : raid0          Array Size : 41871360 (39.93 GiB 42.88 GB)        Raid Devices : 2       Total Devices : 2         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 16:56:08 2019               State : clean      Active Devices : 2     Working Devices : 2      Failed Devices : 0       Spare Devices : 0            Chunk Size : 512K    Consistency Policy : none                  Name : localhost:10  (local to host localhost)                UUID : 23c6abac:b131a049:db25cac8:686fb045              Events : 0        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         0       9      101        0      active sync   /dev/md101         1       9      102        1      active sync   /dev/md102

14.移除损坏的磁盘。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -r /dev/md101 /dev/sdb1  mdadm: hot removed /dev/sdb1 from /dev/md101  [root@localhost ~]# mdadm -r /dev/md102 /dev/sdd1  mdadm: hot removed /dev/sdd1 from /dev/md102
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md101  /dev/md101:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 16:53:00 2019          Raid Level : raid1          Array Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 2       Total Devices : 1         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 17:04:59 2019               State : clean, degraded      Active Devices : 1     Working Devices : 1      Failed Devices : 0       Spare Devices : 0    Consistency Policy : resync                  Name : localhost:101  (local to host localhost)                UUID : 80bb4fc5:1a628936:275ba828:17f23330              Events : 26        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         -       0        0        0      removed         1       8       33        1      active sync   /dev/sdc1
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md102  /dev/md102:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 16:53:23 2019          Raid Level : raid1          Array Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 2       Total Devices : 1         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 17:05:07 2019               State : clean, degraded      Active Devices : 1     Working Devices : 1      Failed Devices : 0       Spare Devices : 0    Consistency Policy : resync                  Name : localhost:102  (local to host localhost)                UUID : 38abac72:74fa8a53:3a21b5e4:01ae64cd              Events : 20        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         -       0        0        0      removed         1       8       65        1      active sync   /dev/sde1

15.重新添加热备份盘。

[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -a /dev/md101 /dev/sdb1  mdadm: added /dev/sdb1  [root@localhost ~]# mdadm -a /dev/md102 /dev/sdd1  mdadm: added /dev/sdd1

16.再次查看状态。

[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/mdstat  Personalities : [raid1] [raid0]  md10 : active raid0 md102[1] md101[0]        41871360 blocks super 1.2 512k chunks    md102 : active raid1 sdd1[2] sde1[1]        20953088 blocks super 1.2 [2/1] [_U]        [====>................]  recovery = 23.8% (5000704/20953088) finish=1.2min speed=208362K/sec    md101 : active raid1 sdb1[2] sdc1[1]        20953088 blocks super 1.2 [2/1] [_U]        [======>..............]  recovery = 32.0% (6712448/20953088) finish=1.1min speed=203407K/sec    unused devices: <none>
[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/mdstat  Personalities : [raid1] [raid0]  md10 : active raid0 md102[1] md101[0]        41871360 blocks super 1.2 512k chunks    md102 : active raid1 sdd1[2] sde1[1]        20953088 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU]    md101 : active raid1 sdb1[2] sdc1[1]        20953088 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU]    unused devices: <none>
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md101  /dev/md101:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 16:53:00 2019          Raid Level : raid1          Array Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 2       Total Devices : 2         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 17:07:28 2019               State : clean      Active Devices : 2     Working Devices : 2      Failed Devices : 0       Spare Devices : 0    Consistency Policy : resync                  Name : localhost:101  (local to host localhost)                UUID : 80bb4fc5:1a628936:275ba828:17f23330              Events : 45        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         2       8       17        0      active sync   /dev/sdb1         1       8       33        1      active sync   /dev/sdc1
[root@localhost ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md102  /dev/md102:             Version : 1.2       Creation Time : Sun Aug 25 16:53:23 2019          Raid Level : raid1          Array Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)       Used Dev Size : 20953088 (19.98 GiB 21.46 GB)        Raid Devices : 2       Total Devices : 2         Persistence : Superblock is persistent           Update Time : Sun Aug 25 17:07:36 2019               State : clean      Active Devices : 2     Working Devices : 2      Failed Devices : 0       Spare Devices : 0    Consistency Policy : resync                  Name : localhost:102  (local to host localhost)                UUID : 38abac72:74fa8a53:3a21b5e4:01ae64cd              Events : 39        Number   Major   Minor   RaidDevice State         2       8       49        0      active sync   /dev/sdd1         1       8       65        1      active sync   /dev/sde1  

常用 RAID 间比较#

名称 硬盘数量 容量/利用率 读性能 写性能 数据冗余
RAID0 N N块总和 N倍 N倍 无,一个故障,丢失所有数据
RAID1 N(偶数) 50% 写两个设备,允许一个故障
RAID5 N≥3 (N-1)/N ↑↑ 计算校验,允许一个故障
RAID6 N≥4 (N-2)/N ↑↑ ↓↓ 双重校验,允许两个故障
RAID10 N(偶数,N≥4) 50% (N/2)倍 (N/2)倍 允许基组中的磁盘各损坏一个

一些话#

此篇涉及到的操作很简单,但是,有很多的查看占用了大量的篇幅,看关键点,过程都是一个套路,都是重复的。

Linux 常见 RAID 及软 RAID 创建

© 版权声明
THE END
点赞0
抢沙发
头像
提交
头像

昵称

取消
昵称
一言一语